1. What is ERP? - ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic process of a company from manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.
  2. Different types of ERP? - SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards,Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP’s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages aver other ERP packages.
  3. What is SAP? - SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.
  4. Explain the concept of “Business Content” in SAP Business Information Warehouse? - Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, Business Applications and other selected applications.
  5. Why do you usually choose to implement SAP? - There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.
  6. Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation? - Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.
  7. What is IDES? - International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.
  8. What is WF and its importance? - Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.
  9. What is SAP R/3? - A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.
  10. What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3? - The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.
  11. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program? - Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called “sap data transfer”. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will transfer).
  12. Explain open SQL vs native SQL? - ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.
  13. What are datasets? - The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.
  14. What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table? - Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. Transparent table: - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.
  15. What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3? Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3 Reports? - Performance — Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end — now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis — BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.
  16. How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates? - In order to use an ERP system, a
    business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the
    people understand the business processes and how they integrate.
  17. What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining? - OLAP - On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called “reporting.
  18. What is “Extended Star Schema� and how did it emerge? - The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.
  19. Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data - Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data. Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.
  20. Name some drawbacks of SAP - Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.
  21. What is Bex? - Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.
  22. What are variables? - Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.
  23. What is AWB?. What is its purpose? - AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information whearhousing.
  24. What is the significance of ODS in BIW? - An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.
  25. What are the different types of source system? - SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW, Flat Files and External Systems.
  26. What is Extractor? - Extractors is a data retrieval mechanisms in the SAP source system. Which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.
SAP HR Interview Questions
1) What is internal recruitment ?
Internal recruitment is search for internal applicants. when you integrate with personal development, you can use profile match up which help to search for resources internally.

2) What are problems generally faced while posting result to FICO ?
Normally mismatching of amount get posted.
3) What is controlling area, what does it do, and how were is it assigned ?
Controlling area is under of FI person which helps to set for costing purposes also based on thses fiscal variant is set.
4) What is the purpose of creating symbolic a/c, what is transaction code for same ? Can we assign one symbolic a/c to multiple wage types ?
It depends upon your payrol requirement to create salary head like expense account etc.
5) What is REPORT VARIANT FOR OFF CYCLE ACTIVITIES, what do we do in this step ?
Variant is to save all input field parameters.  once you saved as a variant , you can use the same for future purposes.
6) What all infotypes which has to be created at the time of hiring OR PA40 and cannot be maintained later with PA30 ?
Why you require creation of infotypes... 
7) If we have to create multiple positions, what method OR tool we can use to avoid errors due to creating them manually.
You can create muliple position by LSMW or batch programs for the Tcode PP01 or PPOCE
8) What do is LANDSCAPE in SAP Project, I think its related to no. of servers used, Pls correct me if I am wrong, Or what it is ?
It is related to Basis
9) What is the role of a administrator in PA ?
To restrict access to Personnel administration based on PA/PSA.
Administrator: we come across for Personnel admininstration, Time management, and Payroll in sap .
Each admiinistrator is reponsible for each individual activity.  You can get the name of the administrator in the pay slip so the employee for any clarification he can meet the responsible administrator  (accessed through payslip)
This administrtor (is created in PA of PM) is responsible for recruitment.  
10) What is golive actually ? What is the role of a functional consultant in it ?
Go live is transfering of data from Development server to Production server.
  Development ----->  Quality server 
In Quality you need to Unit, Integration testing, Once it is OK in Qulaity server,
  Then you need 
  Development ----> Production                                    
1) How to group employees for their allowances in payroll?
Go to basic salary of india in Payroll india and group the employee first depending on the allowances to be paid and this is 
applied for even differantiating the employees into groups depending on their pay structures. 
2) In OM, how to get the details for group of employees (ex.) group of Drivers in the organisation?
Drivers can be identified depending on their position at which they are working and you can have a different job codes for them who do you want to look into.
3) How is Time managment and payroll is integrated?
TM MGMT and Payroll are integrated in ways are time data is collected from the info type 0007 and these hours are taken in basic as Number of hours worked  or utilizwed, and even with time evaluation and last with schemas integration.
X000 schema carries xt00 and these data can be transfered between other modlues.
4) What are the other modules integrated with OM?
OM contains all the modules to be integrated, depending client requirement it is done. As OM-PA, OM -RECT, OM-BENEFITS, OM-TRAINING & EVENT MGMT, OM - PD AND OTHERS.
5) In TM, if group of employees get 10 days of annual leave, what will be the time evaluation status?
TIME evaluation shows the exact details maintained over to the employee through his 2006 and 2001. if they are all allowed to take leave it shows leave as paid or unpaid depending on the configuration done by the consultant for these situation. in  processing time data in payroll or even Time evaluation ( Valuation of absences )  also.
6) Find the scenario and give the result : A,B,C are employees, where  A,B will get basic,HRA,DA. C gets Basic and DA. How to group for the allowances?.
Allowances are paid depending on his gradation and even wages are also paid on this criteria, if AB are paid bas, hra and DA then take three wage types ans assign to the ES Grouping and don't give HRA wage type to C.Check basic salary of inda and ALlowances in indian payroll thorougly, bcos first of all v have to undestand this first and then you have to decide the emp sub gtroupings.    
SAP HR Interview Questions:
 1) I am running Indian payroll, wage type /130 is not generated, while it should be populated during execution of Rule IN70. Can any body help me in solving the problem?
Ans) Check if the HRA, conveyance and other exemptions are being calculated in.  The payroll run, they would move into this wage type and not your custom Wage types. The calculation of these exemptions depend on several other Settings
 2) What are dynamic actions and how to configure it?
Ans) Dynamic actions are performed automatically by the system, depending on certain conditions. If maintaining one infotype has an effect on another infotype, the system automatically displays the second infotype for processing.
Dynamic actions can run in the background i.e. the user does not see the run on the screen.
A change in one field of an infotype might require, that certain other infotype be updated at the same time. The details can be specified as a dynamic event. It is automatically triggered by the system.
*Examples: *
The Personal Data infotype is newly created, and the Number of children field is filled. Once the record is saved, the system automatically displays the Family/Related Person (0021) infotype and the Child subtype (2) for processing. An employee is hired, and the probationary period is entered in infotype Contract Elements. Once this information is saved, the system automatically displays a record from the Monitoring of Dates (0019) infotype and the subtype Expiry of probation (1) for processing.
 3)  What are the Questions asked for PAYROLL in INTERVIEWS?
Ans) Please find the questions below:
1) What is the importance of offcycle payroll?
2) What role does the control record play in pay roll?
3)  How do you calculate Retro accounting amounts?
4) What is symbolic account?
5) What is the difference between payroll area, payscale area and personnel area?
6) How do you identify a different wage types?
7) What features do you come across in payrolls employee attributes and CAP PCR. establish the relationship among them?
8) What are the infotypes required for a payroll process?
9) What is the difference between Indian and us payroll?
 4) Can any body tell me, how to add the custom reports in Manager's?
Desktop (in SAP) about Manager's Desktop? I've tried to customize Manager's Desktop in IMG but it can't worked.
Ans) Are your reports based on the HR logical data base (LDB). If so then the customization is straightforward to pass the relevant data to the selection screens. Else you will need to pass this through a function for which you may need an ABAPer. You also need to look at the authorization issues for the reports in case it is not using a LDB
 5) Is infotype 185 country specific, can it be maintained for India, and will it affect the payroll if it is maintained?
Ans) We maintain subtypes in table v_t591a. Goto tcode sm30 -> v_t591a -> 
Select maintain -> it will ask you for infotype for which u want to maintain subtype in your case it is 0185.
 6)  We created an Appraisal Template now I want to assign it with one Employee or ESG. How I can do this integration and where. What is the next step after this?
Ans) Either you can establish the relationship between the position and the Appraisal Template. Otherwise can restrict the appraisal template based on PSA... However there is no standard setting for restricting the Appraisal template on ESG
 7)  What is knowledge transfer in sap hr module?
Ans) Knowledge Transfer is a general terminology.  It means that you disseminate the knowledge what you have.  Say you are teaching one module to other person. You are the giver and the other person is the receiver of knowledge. The process is Knowledge Transfer.  You are transferring the subject what you know. KT is not specific to any module.
KT in SAP is the knowledge transferred to a reliever who is to take over your responsibilities so that he/she knows what all you have done shouldering the same responsibility. It is done in order to minimize the knowledge gap between the two sides, and facilitate the reliever to carry on the baton from where his/her predecessor leaves. It might be in the form of transferring the soft copies, hard copies of the various documents, verbal one or a written one to make it more formal.
 8) What would be basically my roles where I need to provide support or what kind of specs do I need to face.  Pls give some examples.
Ans) You are working in Payroll and Benefits, your role can exactly defined after seeing what your Business is doing, are you processing payroll through SAP or you are processing through third party and down load through SAP. In payroll mostly you will get the issue of authorization, and check which all infotypes are going to effect while running the payroll. any issue occur, you need to check the infotypes and while downloading check the fields and verify the data , check the programme and wage types also , whether they are maintained properly etc.
 9) Can anybody give some examples of tickets in OM, PA.? What are the tickets you will get in support project please provide me with solution?
Ans) If any issue, user raises the ticket. Suppose in OM, org tree is not visible and in PA updation of master records, wage type permissibility or any issue.  Relating to the same. If you have any payroll down load happening, that gets affected due to this infotype. We need to look into as an urgent matter.
10) I am trying to assign an employee on the system to ESS user profile and the message I get is personnel number 00000001 does not exist. [When this employee has full record on the system and is an active employee] What am I doing wrong?
Ans) IT 0185 can be used for India payroll. This is for pan no, gratuity.
This will not affect payroll.
We maintain subtypes in table v_t591a. Goto tcode sm30 -> v_t591a -> select maintain -> it will ask you for infotype for which u want to maintain subtype maintain -> in your case it is 0185.
Check his Infotype 105 and see if there is a valid record for the employee.
11)  I am facing problem in Infotype 0019/ Monitoring of task. Pls help me in doing IT 0019 working, the system is not giving the reminder on set date, is it require some other settings also. Pls let me know what all settings need to be done for this infotype?
Ans) In table V_T531 mention the Lead Follow-up Time and the Units. Like say you want to set the Reminder for 3 months or whatever from the Task Date. This setting will default the Reminder Date.
12) What is diff between simple maintenance and detailed maintenance?
13) What is an Export mode and how do you use it and what for? 
14) How many structures are there? 
15) What is an Task and how do you assign?
16) Can diff positions an be assign to one job?
17) What is the diff betwwe job and position?
18) What is tcode for org unit?
19) What is an org'l plan?
20) What is cost center and work center...and diff?
21) What is the diff between infogroup and infotype and how do you use and Where?
22) How can you create infotype?
23) What is personnel action?
24) What is Dynamic action and what for?
25) What is period parameter and modifier?
26) How do u config OM and PA?
27) What is Personnel area and can we create multiple personnel areas?
28) How do you activate an employee in IMG?

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